Two Flags, One City: Knoxville's Civil War

This is a special radio presentation from WUOT: "Two Flags, One City: Knoxville's Civil War". I'm Matt Shafer Powell.

(MX UP: Jim Taylor "Little Rose is Gone")

Sunday morning, November 29th, 1863. The pre-dawn light that's washing away the cold, rainy darkness over Knoxville reveals movement beyond the ditches that surround Fort Sanders. Confederate soldiers--nearly 4000 of them, some dressed in the butternut and gray of the South, many more in the rags that served as clothing in this poor man's army-- creep toward the ditches, their muskets and bayonets at the ready for a raid that will forever change the face of the city and its people.

(SFX: Cannon shots followed by musket fire which increases in intensity)

The guns at Fort Sanders begin to rain fire on the soldiers below. The soldiers move forward as best they can, picking their way through the obstacles placed there by the Union Army, finally charging into a deep ditch. For twenty minutes, there's pandemonium, the acrid smell of gunpowder, gunfire and explosions come from the fort above them. Desperate, the soldiers claw at the icy wall on the other side of the ditch; they are trapped, and there amidst the panic, some are forced into the paralyzing realization that they are going to die there. The battle rages on for twenty endless minutes.



There's a certain irony to the fact that the pivotal battle of Knoxville's Civil War took only twenty minutes after several years of political turmoil and personal betrayal. But the story of Knoxville's Civil War is one charged with irony, as well as contradiction, treachery and deep, bitter divisions.


At the East Tennessee Historical Society Museum on Knoxville's Market Street, visitors to the Civil War exhibit are greeted with a display that catches many of them off-guard. Michael Toomey is the Staff Historian…

Michael Toomey 6A :36 …a Southern state
(A lot of folks do come into the museum expecting to see pretty much all Confederate artifacts. And that's not unreasonable---Tennessee was of course a Confederate state. But East Tennessee was different. East Tennessee was largely pro-Union and so when they come back here and see that the first large object they see is a large United States flag and there's a large picture of a Unionist supporter and there's Union uniforms. All these things give a very different picture, perhaps, than what they expect to see when they come into a Civil War exhibit in a Southern state.)

On the wall facing these Union artifacts, you'll find a Confederate Battle Flag and several other Southern relics. The display articulates an important point about East Tennessee: While it may have been considered largely Unionist, it was anything but consolidated…

Michael Toomey 5B :26 …on both sides
(One of the things we like to point out in our Civil War exhibit is that East Tennessee was badly divided. And so we have the Union artifacts on one side and the Confederate artifacts on the other and we think that point will be very clear to the visitors as they go through that East Tennessee was badly divided. We try to show that this was a conflict that was fought with the same amount of sincerity and intensity and loyalty and ferocity on both sides.)

The complexity of the region's Civil War loyalties has been known to create confusion among tourists. But also among East Tennesseans themselves, especially when it comes to their heritage. One such East Tennessean is Dot Kelly, the Preservation Chairman for the Knoxville Civil War Roundtable and a frequent speaker on the Civil War in Knoxville…

Dot Kelly 2A :42 …was a Yankee!
(I was born and raised in Knoxville and always thought of myself as a Southern lady and once I read "Gone with the Wind" when I was about 13, I was convinced that I was the Southern Belle---I was Scarlet O'Hara incarnate. And I was living in Atlanta many years later and came home and my mother says, "Oh, I have found my Grandpa's discharge papers!" So we went rushing out to her cousin's house to see the discharge papers. And I very reverently unfolded this yellowed piece of paper—you know—and what should meet my eyes on the top of the paper but a big eagle and the words "United States of America". I discovered I was a Yankee!)

(MX UP: Jim Taylor "Camp Chase")

One of the most important developments in the history of Knoxville came in the late 1850's. That's when a railroad was built that connected Knoxville with Virginia to the North and Georgia to the South…

Dot Kelly 3A :33 …also Northwards
(In the early 50's, Knoxville and East Tennessee was primarily agricultural, but fairly isolated. Roads were fairly poor and the railroad did not arrive until the late '50s. So early in the 50's, you're going to find that there's not much contact with the outside world. However, once the railroads arrived, the farming industry developed very well and began shipping farm produce to all of the South and also Northwards.)

Michael Toomey 7A :35 …orientation as well
(The railroad that went through East Tennessee was vital to a lot of economic development, both in the Valley and to the North and to the South. But what it did was to create in a sense a lot of new communities. It tended to connect the people in the Valley more directly with Virginia and the Deep South. By 1860, you begin to see those distinctions made pretty clear—that there are two different perspectives in East Tennessee in terms of economic orientation particularly, but that's going to transfer into political orientation as well.)

Seymour 3A :21 …from the start
(Most of what you would call the upper crust Knoxvillians were generally Confederate sympathizers and most of the general population that didn't have a lot of money and wealth were probably Union sympathizers. So it was divided from the start)

Digby Seymour is the author of the book "Divided Loyalties: Fort Sanders and the Civil War in East Tennessee"…

Seymour 4A :35 …their lives worse
(The mood at the beginning of the war depended on whether you were a citizen of the city of Knoxville or you were just a citizen of Knox County and the surrounding area. The citizens inside of Knoxville---the merchant class---were primarily Confederate and the smaller people---small in wealth, I guess you'd say---they tended to stick with the Union, because they didn't need any changes to make their lives worse)

East Tennessee native and University of Washington history professor Tracy McKenzie is the author of "Lincolnites and Rebels: The Civil War in Parson Brownlow's Knoxville"…

Tracy McKenzie 2A :15 …the Confederacy
(I think you could safely say that for East Tennessee as a whole, the majority was always clearly Unionist. That would be in contrast to Knoxville itself, where by the end of the summer of 1861, the majority was clearly now supporting the Confederacy.)

Michael Toomey 8A :37 …on slave labor
(The main thing to point to I suspect would be the institution of slavery. Slavery existed throughout East Tennessee. Every East Tennessee county had slavery to some extent. But the bigger question I think to ask—to what extent were those counties dependent on the institution of slavery? That's what varies from mountain to valley. In the valley, they were fairly—in some cases-- fairly dependent on the institution of slavery. But that was not---even in the valleys—the norm. Certainly, the further away you got from the flatlands that were suitable for large scale agriculture---the further away you got from those, the less agriculture depended on slave labor.)

Stephen Ash is a professor of History at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville…

Stephen Ash 2A :22 …disagreed with that
(The people in East Tennessee felt themselves in many ways alienated from the rest of the South. And when secession came, when most of the people in the South decided in 1860---after Lincoln's election in 1860---that they wanted to break away from the Union and establish their own Confederacy, most East Tennesseans disagreed with that.)

Digby Seymour 10A :26 …things like that
(This is a mountainous area, hills, not suitable for big plantations so there was no need to have a bunch of slaves doing all your work, and Middle Tennessee is half and half and then West Tennessee is typical cotton country and so it was a divided state according to the amount of hills there were and rivers and things like that.)

Tracy McKenzie 3A :27 …to the Union
(East Tennesseans had for a long time thought of themselves as a stepchild---in a sense---within Tennessee as a whole. Poorer than Middle and Western Tennessee. And I'm firmly convinced that much of the sort of reflexive suspicion of secession was as much as anything a suspicion of the Deep South and of the rest of the state, much more than it was a kind of immediate commitment to the Union.)

(MX UP: Jim Taylor "Seneca Square Dance")

On December 20th, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union. In the six months that followed, Tennesseans engaged in a furious debate over secession. Knoxville became a hornet's nest of political activity, a focal point for the debate. Jack Neely is a columnist for the Metropulse weekly, and the author of several books on Knoxville history…

Jack Neely S 5A :25 …as Knoxville did
(Churches were divided, houses were divided, almost every square foot of town was divided. You had all these different points of view on the war. You had almost every kind of point of war that there was in America. I don't know if there were many cities in America that had that kind of mixture to the extent that Knoxville did.)

Tracy McKenzie 4A :30 …of each other
(When I think about the divisions within Knoxville as the Civil War is erupting, there is an image that is so intriguing about the nature of the conflict, that I've never been able to erase it. In early June of 1861, a Knoxville craftsman actually did a kind of pencil sketch of Gay Street at a time when there were effectively simultaneous Confederate and Union rallies within a couple blocks of each other.)

Dot Kelly 6B :22 …particular army
(On one end of Gay Street, the Federal flag is on a tall pole and you have the civilians standing listening to a recruiter for the Federal forces and only about two blocks away you see a Confederate flag flying and you have men lined up there listening to the Confederate recruiter recruiting for their particular army)

Jack Neely S 2A :30 …in Knoxville
(Charles Douglas was one of the most conspicuous Union supporters of the early days of the war. He was known to walk around downtown, around Gay Street especially, hoisting an American flag and banging a drum and chanting pro-Unionist slogans. Apparently, the newly recruited Confederates had enough of him. Some of them were staying in the Lamar House Hotel, and shot him, apparently from the windows of the hotel across the street from where he was. He was—I guess—the first casualty of the Civil War in Knoxville.)

Another of the most conspicuous antagonists in Knoxville was "Parson" Brownlow. Brownlow was a minister, a staunch Unionist and the publisher of a newspaper known as the Knoxville Whig…

Digby Seymour 7A :21 …very one-sided
(He had very strong opinions and he was well educated and had a very loyal following, and he was very vocal and very opinionated. He would not give in or become neutral on anything. He was very one-sided.)

Jack Neely 4A :28 …tongue in cheek wit
(Parson Brownlow was an interesting personality during the Civil War. He was kind of like nearest equivalent I can think of as the radio talk show host of his day. He loved incendiary hate speech and he was known for his razor wit that didn't spare anybody. To read his stuff now, you sometimes laugh out loud. And although you get the impression he was rather stern in demeanor, he was also very, very accomplished in tongue-in-cheek wit.)

But Unionists like Parson Brownlow certainly weren't without their Confederate counterparts…

Jack Neely 12A :32 …hated him
(I think the most interesting and unusual example was John Mitchell who lived here for several years before the war. He was an Irish revolutionary who made his way to Knoxville in the middle 1850's and began espousing this idea that secessionism was the expression of Irish Nationalism in America. He published a weekly called the Southern Citizen which promoted this kind of unusual mixture of beliefs---he believed that abolitionism was an Anglo-Saxon plot against the Celtic people. Parson Brownlow absolutely hated him.)

(MX UP: Jim Taylor "McClanahan's March")

In a February 1861 referendum, Tennesseans rejected the idea of secession. But in April---after the war began---Abraham Lincoln put out a call for Tennesseans to join the Union Army. Many of those Tennesseans who were undecided about the issue reacted defensively to the idea of taking up arms against fellow Southerners. Another referendum followed and in a landslide, secession prevailed. On June 8th, Tennessee became the eleventh and final state to join the Confederate States of America…

Dot Kelly 9A :21 …of 1861
(This was such an important area---early. In fact, before Tennessee really seceded, the governor of Tennessee sent troops into East Tennessee to make sure that there were no problems with the Unionists. So East Tennessee was basically occupied territory by the Confederates early on from May of 1861.)

Stephen Ash 3A :23 …the war began
(The Confederate authorities and the secessionists in Knoxville decided to go easy on the Unionists like Brownlow. Brownlow was even permitted to continue publishing his newspaper all through the summer and into the fall of 1861. Still cranking out Unionist editorials there. His was in fact the only newspaper in the whole Confederacy that continued to take a Union stand after the war began.)

Michael Toomey 10B :24 …that at first
(They tried at first what you would call a rather benign occupation of East Tennessee. They understood that Unionist support was strong, but they also felt that given time, it might either fade away---or perhaps---if it didn't come around to Confederate support, they might at least just shut up and be quiet. Intimidation might ultimately have to be used. But they didn't want to think like that at first.)

Stephen Ash 5A :12 …of the region
(Then there was an incident in late 1861, in which some Unionist guerilla bands sabotaged the railroad bridges through East Tennessee and this provoked a Confederate crackdown on the Unionists of the region.)

Dot Kelly :37 …the area afterwards
(One of the gentlemen from upper East Tennessee who was Reverend Carter from Carter County went to Washington to talk with none other than Lincoln himself, General McClellan and also Secretary of State Seward and in this discussion, he proposed that Union people from the areas around the major bridges all along this line from Bristol to Bridgeport, Alabama would be willing to attempt to burn these bridges if they could be assured that the Federal troops would march in and secure the area afterwards.)

Michael Toomey 11A :21 …so to speak
(They carried out their end of the bargain. They attacked a number of bridges along the East Tennessee-Virginia and East Tennessee-Georgia Railroad. And several were in fact destroyed. But for reasons that are fairly unclear even today, the invasion never took place. So that left those bridge burners kind of high and dry, so to speak.)

Dot Kelly 13A :22 …were sent to Tuscaloosa
(They were immediately---of course---attacked by Confederates, they were driven back into the mountains and eventually, many of them had to move north. Some of them were captured, some of the bridge burners were hanged, two in Greeneville and three in Knoxville and many of the ones who were even suspected of bridge burning were sent to Tuscaloosa.)

In the crackdown that followed, Parson Brownlow and other outspoken Unionists left town. Those who stayed moved underground, often keeping their loyalties to themselves. But East Tennessee was never far from Abraham Lincoln's mind. "My distress," he wrote, "is that our friends in East Tennessee are being hanged and driven to despair, and even now are thinking of taking Rebel arms for the sake of protection. In this, we lose the most valuable stake we have in the South."

Stephen Ash 6A :25 …the Union underway
(Abraham Lincoln himself was particularly interested in the fate of East Tennessee because he was hoping to use this solid base of Unionism here in the Confederacy as sort of a platform to reconstruct the South politically once the war was over. He was very, very anxious that a Union army get into East Tennessee, liberate these Unionists and get the process of reconstructing the state---getting it back in the Union underway.)

Dot Kelly 21A :22 …the Confederate arch
(Lincoln was aware that the local population---which was so strongly Union—was important politically--but also militarily---the railroad which runs from Bristol to Chattanooga through the state of Tennessee was extremely important. It was so important that one of the Richmond papers called it the Keystone to the Confederate Arch)

(MX UP: Jim Taylor "Stony Point")

Despite Lincoln's interest in East Tennessee, it would be another two years before the Union Army would find its way there. In September of 1863, Union General Ambrose Burnside entered Knoxville to find that the Confederates had left only a few days before his arrival, gone to join General Braxton Bragg near Chickamauga Creek, just south of Chattanooga…

Stephen Ash 7A :17 …and tyranny
(He was greeted as a welcome hero and the Unionists in East Tennessee and in Knoxville in particular cheered him as his troops marched in. They had been waiting for well over two years for this liberation from what they saw as Confederate despotism and tyranny.)

Tracy McKenzie 6A :18 …the Union Army
(By the time that Burnside's Army reaches Knoxville, word has been spreading across the region for several days. And from all accounts, there was a major effort by Unionists in the countryside to make their way to Knoxville, where they're most likely to be able to intersect the path of the Union Army)

Dot Kelly 15A :28 …arrived in Knoxville
(We had some ingenious people in East Tennessee. They laid bonfires on the tops of the ridges from here to the outlying areas. And when the Federals liberated East Tennessee, these bonfires were lit from ridge top to ridge top to ridge top, notifying the outlying counties that the Federals had at last arrived in Knoxville)

If the sight of Union soldiers walking the streets of Knoxville was good news for Lincoln and for the Unionists living in East Tennessee, it certainly wasn't good news for everyone. Confederate sympathizers ---especially those in Knoxville---watched in horror as their city was taken without a fight. One such Confederate was a woman by the name of Ellen Renshaw House…

Teresa Smith 2A :10 …Cumberland Avenue
(Ellen House was a young lady who was actually born in Savannah, Georgia. Her family moved to Knoxville in 1860 and they lived over on Cumberland Avenue.)

Teresa Smith is President of the local United Daughters of the Confederacy—-a chapter named after Ellen House. Smith says House was a strong, determined woman---a Rebel who had no intention of keeping her loyalties secret. Beginning in 1863, House kept a detailed diary –a valuable record of what it was like for a Confederate living in Union-occupied Knoxville…

Teresa Smith 3A :35 …more than enough
(The entry in her diary when the Union soldiers started marching into town to me is classic. Quote: "I think it is outrageous. The Yankees are here! Just think, here, here in Knoxville! Walked in without the least resistance on our part. And the good-for-nothing things have such comfortable quarters. How I hate them! Four came here today and we had to give them something to eat. That was too much! After dreaming of our boys to wake and find the Yankees here—too bad, too bad. More came in today. I don't know how many there are or care. To know that they are here is quite enough and more than enough.)

But the Confederates were not gone for good. After a decisive victory at Chickamauga, Braxton Bragg's Rebels chased the Yankees into Chattanooga. While Bragg laid siege to Chattanooga, he sent legendary Confederate General James Longstreet and his 17-thousand soldiers north to re-capture Knoxville…

Michael Toomey 14A :21 …to Longstreet
(When Bragg was in the process of laying siege to Chattanooga, he got into a bit of squabble with several of his generals, one of whom was Longstreet. He could deal with the rest of them because he had the support of President Jefferson Davis. Longstreet's a different story because he's James Longstreet. I mean, you can't just say shut up and be quiet to James Longstreet.)

Stephen Ash 11A :17 …Union troops there
(They were hoping that Longstreet could destroy Burnside's Army, surround it, perhaps even force it to surrender after it was surrounded, and that if this could be done quickly again, Longstreet could then return to Chattanooga, and---with the rest of Bragg's troops---defeat the Union troops there.)

In Knoxville, Longstreet found a city surrounded by several earthworks forts---forts that had been started by the Confederates and were being feverishly completed by the Yankees. After a series of small-scale battles on the outskirts of town, Burnside retreated back to Knoxville. And Longstreet followed him…

Stephen Ash 12A :28 …as Fort Sanders
(Longstreet puts Knoxville under siege but does not want to get involved in a long siege because he can't keep his army occupied for that long, so he begins looking for a way to take the city quickly. He begins probing for a weak point in the city's fortifications and he looks here and he looks there and finally, he and his generals believe that they have found a weak spot in the Federal lines and that is what is known to the Union troops as Fort Sanders.)

Tracy McKenzie 8A :37 …Confederate forces
(Fort Sanders was an earthen defense. The labor details had simply been scooping up earth and scooping up earth to build an earthen wall that probably was in the neighborhood of 10-to-12 feet high. In front of that earthen wall, they dug a trench, probably between 6 and 8 feet deep. In front of that trench, they took sharpened sticks and put them in the ground at forty-five degree angles, they took telegraph wire and strung it from tree stump to tree stump to try to slow down any attack from Confederate forces)

Stephen Ash 14A :34 …of the fort
(So the idea was that Confederate troops would attack right before dawn---actually in the dark---and scale the parapet and overwhelm the fort and they massed four brigades---and this was probably a total of about 4000 troops. They spent the night within 150 yards of the fort.)

(MX UP: Jim Taylor "Little Rose is Gone")
(SFX UP: Cannon and musket fire, increasing in intensity)

Just before dawn on November 29th, Longstreet launched his attack…

Dot Kelly 19A :20 …it is icy
(The men pitch headlong into the ditch, some of them, of course, jumping into the ditch. And the 4000 men are sure that they are going to be able to scale this wall. They're really surprised when they discover that this ditch is 6-8 feet deep and they're looking up at a parapet that's 20 foot tall. Plus, it is icy.)

Michael Toomey 15B :15 …climb up there
(So once they got in that ditch, they had to claw their way up the wall then. And to make matters even worse, it was very, very cold that morning, and the Union forces had poured water down the embankment, which meant it was virtually impossible to climb up there.)

Stephen Ash 13A :16 …in large numbers
(They got into the bottom of the ditch, found that the parapet was much higher than they thought, were reduced to trying to climb up it by climbing up on the shoulders of their own men and only a handful of Confederates even got to the top of the parapet. Meanwhile, they were being shot down in large numbers.)

Dot Kelly 20A :25 …the troops
(And in the ditch, the men suddenly are hearing blasts going off. They at first thought perhaps this was their own artillery which had lost its range and was firing on them. But actually, it is the Union captain who was in charge of the artillery. He—realizing what was going to happen---had cut fuses short and was throwing over his own artillery rounds into the ditch, where they exploded among the troops)

Digby Seymour 8A :27 …just a massacre
(The soldiers who were in the ditch that couldn't get over on to the fort because it was too slippery and they were being shot at, they couldn't go either way because the following Confederate troops pushed in there, thinking that probably the ditch was empty and they would be the next wave. But they all just became one big mass. They couldn't go forward and they couldn't go back. There was no way to go sideways. So it was just a massacre.)


MX: Jim Taylor "Bonaparte Crosses the Rhine"

It was a massacre that lasted twenty minutes. One of the Union soldiers at Fort Sanders later wrote: "The ditch---in places---was almost full of them piled one on top of the other. They were brave men, most of them Georgians. I would give one of the wounded a drink as quick as anybody if I had it. That is about the only thing they ask for when first wounded. But at the same time, I wish the whole Southern Confederacy was in that ditch in the same predicament." Meanwhile, a Confederate with the 60th Alabama Regiment wrote: "Among the many inexpressibly sad days of our military career, no member of the regiment will, I am sure, fail to recognize this, the 29th Day of November 1863, as one of the most sad. All through that dismal day the words were ever recurring---'These are they who have passed through great tribulation'."


In the Battle of Fort Sanders, more than 800 Confederate soldiers were killed, wounded or taken captive. During that same twenty minutes, the Union Army reported five killed and eight wounded.

Four days later, the Confederates left Knoxville never to return. The battle and its aftermath left those who supported the Confederacy with an uncertain future, having to face the retribution of Union soldiers and their supporters. On December 5, 1863, Ellen House wrote this entry in her diary:

Teresa Smith 4A :20 …I was dying
(Everybody says this morning that Longstreet has left. I don't and won't believe it, though the thought that it might be true almost kills me. God grant it is not so. It is so. When I first knew it to be true, I felt as though I was choking. I could scarcely breathe. It was just the way I felt one night last summer when I thought I was dying.)

Ellen House stayed in Knoxville for another five months, suddenly an outcast living in a house occupied by Yankee officers. But she never relinquished her Confederate sympathies, often sneaking past Union soldiers to deliver food and clothing to Confederate prisoners. Eventually, she was banished from Knoxville and didn't return until after the war. In the meantime, Union forces in Chattanooga were able to defeat the Confederates there---an outcome that may have been different if Longstreet's troops had been in Chattanooga, rather than Knoxville. The Federal victory at Chattanooga opened the way for a Union general named William Tecumseh Sherman to make his infamous "march to the sea".

(MX: Jim Taylor "Bonaparte Crosses the Rhine" creeps up during next graph)

These days, there's little to remind someone of the bloodshed that took place on that cold November day. The area where Fort Sanders once stood is now an urban neighborhood--- home to several apartments and rental properties---many occupied by students at the University of Tennessee. There, are however, a handful of markers and monuments. And beyond that, an almost intangible sense that the divisions that defined Knoxville during the Civil War have not completely evaporated over time...

Jack Neely 11A :27 …ancestors were
(In some ways, I think there's kind of a "Born again" resentment among small numbers of people---you know, descendents of soldiers on one side or the other who are sometimes more fiercely resentful of---mostly of the Union side---than their ancestors were.)

Tracy McKenzie 11A :55 …national problem
(Southerners have been re-defining themselves and their history in response to developments of the recent past. In particular, I think the civil rights movement of the 1950's and 60's, the movement toward court-ordered integration and so on, from that moment in time, caused an awful lot of Southerners to begin to close ranks and to think of themselves as Southerners first and foremost who were under attack from external interference.)

Teresa Smith 5A :30 …place in history
(I think a lot of the problems we have is because people want to judge people in that day and time by our standards today. And you cannot do that. They thought they were doing the right thing. Both sides thought they were in God's will. They both thought they were fighting for the Lord, with Him on their side. Everything about them was different. Their values and things were different from today. So it's not fair to judge them on today's standards. You have to leave them in their place in history.)

Michael Toomey 16 A :31 …it was very tragic
(There was a war here. And although there were larger battles fought elsewhere and there were greater campaigns fought elsewhere, for East Tennesseans, this was the Civil War -–this was their experience--and it was very personal, it was very bitter and in some cases, it was very tragic.)

(MX Stings out)
(MX UP: Jim Taylor "McClanahan's March")

"Two Flags, One City: Knoxville's Civil War was produced by Matt Shafer Powell. Guests on the program were---in order of appearance---Michael Toomey, Dot Kelly, Digby Seymour, Tracy McKenzie, Stephen Ash, Jack Neely, and Teresa Smith. Additional thanks to the East Tennessee Historical Society, Sheila Hudson, Ken Smith and Shane Rhyne. The music used in "Two Flags, One City" was arranged and produced by Jim Taylor. More information on Jim Taylor's Music of the Civil War series can be found at Jim-and-Sheila-dot-com. "Two Flags, One City" was produced for WUOT, Knoxville.



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